Greetings from the Throne

The salutations from the throne highlight key themes of the book, especially the victory and present reign of Jesus

The next paragraph presents greetings to the “seven churches” from the “throne” - from God, Jesus, and the “Seven Spirits of God.” It stresses Christ’s current over the earth. His sovereignty is based on his death and resurrection. The recipients of the book are identified as the “seven churches” from key cities of the province.

It begins with God, the one “who is and who was and who is coming.” The phrase expands the self-designation of Yahweh given to Moses from the “burning bush,” I am who I am.

The phrase occurs three more times in the book, but with additions and one deletion that reflect theological developments as the vision progresses.

  • (Revelation 1:4-6) - “John, to the seven churches in Asia: Grace and peace to you from Him who isand who was, and who is coming, and from the Seven Spirits which are before his throne, and from Jesus Christ, the Faithful Witnessthe Firstborn of the Dead, and the Ruler of the Kings of the Earth. Unto him, that loves us and loosed us out of our sins with his blood, and he has made us a kingdom, priests to his God and Fatherto him be the glory and the dominion unto the ages.”


Like Moses, John received his commission while separated from God’s people. Just as Yahweh freed His people from Egypt and summoned them to become a “kingdom of priests,” Jesus has “loosed” his people and made them a “kingdom, priests” – (Exodus 3:14 19:4-5).

The application of terms from the history of Israel to the “churches” is consistent in the book. The Exodus motif reappears in its subsequent visions - (e.g., Revelation 4:8, 11:17, 16:5).

The “seven spirits” are not mentioned anywhere else in Scripture. Here, and in chapter 4, they are linked to the “throne.” The image is derived from a passage in Zechariah: The “seven eyes of Yahweh go about all the earth” - (Zechariah 4:10, Revelation 3:1, 4:5, 5:6).


Faithful Witness” refers to the obedience of Jesus in death, and the “firstborn of the Dead” to his resurrection. “The Ruler of the kings of the earth” is his present status. The terms are derived from three Old Testament passages:

  • (Psalm 2:2-9) - “The KINGS OF THE EARTH set themselves against Yahweh and his anointed one.”
  • (Psalm 89:27) - “I also will make him MY FIRST-BORN, the highest of the kings of the earth.”
  • (Psalm 89:37) - “His seed shall endure forever, and his throne as the sun before me. It shall be established forever as the moon, and as a FAITHFUL WITNESS in heaven.”

The label, “kings of the earth,” links the passage with these messianic Psalms. They foretold what Jesus would become following his death and resurrection.

His sovereignty over the “kings of the earth” is reiterated later in the book, and throughout it, his reign is a present reality - (Revelation 11:15, 12:10, 17:14, 19:16, 20:4).


To him who loves us, and by his blood, loosed us from our sins.” His sacrificial death redeemed the “churches” and demonstrated his love for them. “Loosed” is a literal rendering of the Greek verb, one which has the basic sense “free, deliver, loose.”

The point here is not so much the forgiveness of sin as it is liberation from sin’s bondage.  More commonly, the Bible refers to being “forgiven” or “cleansed” from sin. The probable Old Testament passage behind the clause is found in Deuteronomy, a verse linked conceptually to the passage from Exodus that is used in the verse:

  • (Exodus 19:4-6) – “You have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and how I bare you on eagles’ wings and brought you to myself. Now therefore, if you will obey my voice and keep my covenant, then you shall be my own possession from among all peoples: for all the earth is mine: and you shall be to me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.
  • (Deuteronomy 7:6-8) – “Yahweh your God has chosen you to be a people for his own possession, above all peoples that are upon the face of the earth… Because Yahweh loves you, and because he would keep the oath which he swore to your fathers, Yahweh brought you out with a mighty hand, and delivered you out of the house of bondage, from the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt.”

And “he made us a kingdom, priests to his God.” The Greek verb rendered “made” is in the aorist tense and points to a past event, in this case, the death of Jesus. And here, the priestly role is a present reality and calling for the seven “churches.”

Thus, what Israel was called but failed to do has now fallen to the church, or at least to the “churches of Asia.” And the term “kings-priests” signifies how the saints participate in his present reign – as vessels that mediate his light in the world - (Revelation 3:21, 5:10, 20:6).

To him be the glory and the dominion.” The doxology reiterates the theme of God’s rule and alludes to a passage from Daniel:

  • (Daniel 4:34-35) - “I, Nebuchadnezzar, uplifted my eyes and blessed the Most-High, and glorified him who lives forever, WHOSE DOMINION IS AN EVERLASTING DOMINION, and his kingdom lasts from generation to generation.”


The declaration of Christ’s sovereignty stands in sharp contrast to the claims of the Roman Empire. God reigns supreme through his appointed ruler, Jesus, regardless of the pretensions and persecuting activities of the World Empire, namely, Rome - (Revelation 1:7-8, 7:9, 10:11, 13:7).

The declaration that “he is coming with the clouds” alludes to the passage in Daniel where the “Son of Man” is seen “coming with the clouds of the heavens.” In Revelation, the verb tense is changed from an imperfect (“he was coming”) to the present tense (“he is coming”). And so, the prophecy is coming to fruition in Jesus - (Daniel 7:13-14).

Every eye will see him…all the tribes of the earth.” The term “every eye” includes the “churches.” The “tribes” mourn because the “Son of Man” was pierced on their behalf. The passage combines clauses from Daniel and Zechariah that refer to “tribes” - (Daniel 7:14, Zechariah 12:9-12, Revelation 5:9, 7:9-17).

In Zechariah, it was not the hostile nations that mourned, but the “tribes” of Israel. Here, it becomes “all the tribes of the earth.” Thus, Revelation has UNIVERSALIZED the prophecy that originally referred to Israel.

As the book will declare, the “Lamb,” by his lifeblood, has redeemed men “from every nation, tribe, people, and tongue,” and not just from the nation of Israel.

I am Alpha and the Omega.” The one speaking at this point is the “Lord God who is and who was and who is coming.” In the book, His voice is heard only here and in “New Jerusalem.”

Alpha” is the first letter of the Greek alphabet, and “omega’ is the last. And so, God begins things and brings them to their intended conclusion.

The “Almighty” represents the Greek noun pantokratōr, signifying one with might and sovereignty. In the Greek Septuagint, it translates the Hebrew term rendered “hosts” as in “Yahweh of hosts.” His might reassures the “churches” that He will complete what He has started, and He possesses the power to do so.

And in the salutation, the “seven churches” are in view. From the start, the book is addressed to the marginalized congregations in the province of Asia. And so, also, the salutation anchors the visions of Revelation in the past death and resurrection of Jesus.


Language of the New Testament

Two Little Horns?