Common Errors of Interpretation

The relevance of Revelation for today is lost if we ignore its historical context and read it with incorrect presuppositions

The book of Revelation presents a sweeping picture of the church age that highlights the real “wars” being waged behind the scenes of history, “battles” that manifest in the daily struggles of the church. Its visions show God working through the “Lamb” to implement His kingdom, and it begins in the first century with the “seven churches of Asia.”

Certainly, the book’s visions can be difficult to understand and include bizarre images and unexpected twists. However, there are several common mistakes we make when interpreting them, including:
  • The insistence on “literal” interpretation.
  • The failure to recognize how the book interprets and applies Old Testament passages.
  • The assumption it is only concerned with history’s “final generation.”
  • The assumption the book is focused on national Israel.
  • The assumption the visions are presented in chronological order.


In the book’s first verse, it states how it discloses information - through visionary symbolism. Jesus “signified” his “revelation” to “his servants,” a rendering of the Greek verb sémainō, which is related to the noun for “sign.” It means “to signify, to show by a sign” - (Strong’s - #G4591).

This sense is apparent in the very first vision. John is told the “seven golden lampstands” represent “seven churches,” and the “seven stars” symbolize “seven angels.” This is symbolism. Other examples demonstrate the same method. For example:

  • (4:5) – “And before the throne seven torches of fire, which are the seven spirits of God.”
  • (5:6) – “I saw a Lamb standing… with seven horns and with seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of God.”
  • (11:4) – “The two witnesses are the two olive trees and the two lampstands which stand before the Lord of the earth.”
  • (17:9) – “This calls for a mind with wisdom: the seven heads are seven mountains on which the woman is seated.”

Jesus is not literally a “lamb with seven eyes and seven horns.” The “seven horns and eyes” represent the “seven spirits of God.” Similarly, the “Two Witnesses” are not two actual individuals. They are identified as the “two lampstands.” And if the book’s symbolism is consistent, then they represent churches since elsewhere that is what “lampstands” symbolize - (Revelation 1:20).


The book includes more verbal links to the Old Testament than any other New Testament book. Careful attention must be paid to how it applies those passages, and very often, it does so in unexpected ways.

For example, the original summons for Israel to become a “kingdom of priests” is reapplied to the “churches of Asia.” Language from Zechariah that formerly applied to the “tribes” of Israel is universalized and becomes “all the tribes of the earth” - (Revelation 1:6, 5:10, 20:6, Exodus 19:6, Zechariah 12:10).

The book does not simply cite verses from the Hebrew Bible - it interprets and reapplies them. Failure to recognize this can lead to erroneous interpretations.

For example, the very first verse alludes to the passage from Daniel where the prophet tells Nebuchadnezzar that God has revealed to him “what things must come to pass in later days.”

Revelation quotes this word-for-word from the Greek Septuagint version of Daniel, but it changes the last term from “later days” to “SOON.” What for Daniel was in a remote future has become imminent for the “churches of Asia.”


The assumption that the book focuses on history’s final generation ignores its historical setting. In its entirety, it is addressed to seven churches that are in the Roman province of Asia. Its contents are about “things that must soon come to pass,” and “soon” means from the perspective of the original recipients of the book - (Revelation 1:1-4, 1:11, 4:1-3, 22:10).

While the significance of its visions may not end with the “seven churches,” those congregations are included in them and, therefore, what John sees must be relevant to their historical situations.

But the “seven churches” also form a representative group. They may not exhaust the meaning of the visions, but the visions certainly begin with and include them.

Are the chapters laid out in chronological order? There are three major battle scenes in the book, and each borrows language from Ezekiel’s vision of “Gog and Magog.” Moreover, each describes the “gathering together” of hostile forces to “the war,” singular, against the saints - (Revelation 16:12-16, 19:17-21, 20:8-10).

Are there three separate final attacks by “Gog and Magog” that are separated by hundreds of years, or is the one final assault against the church described from three different perspectives? Is this satanic force defeated by the “Lamb” only to reappear multiple times to attack the “saints” again and again?

Revelation is about future events but not exclusively so. Its visions are anchored in the past death and resurrection of Jesus, but it also culminates in the New Creation. This means it is not primarily or exclusively about history’s final years, but instead, about the entire period during which the church exists.

Finally, the book is as much an exhortation as it is a predictive prophecy. It is a summons to all churches to faithfulness in tribulation, for the church to be the church as it bears witness in a hostile world.


Language of the New Testament

Two Little Horns?