Son of Abraham

Jesus is the true seed of Abraham and heir of the covenant promises, and the one who implements the Patriarch’s inheritance

Alone Worship - Photo by Guillaume de Germain on Unsplash
The introduction to 
Matthew declares that Jesus is the “son of David, the son of Abraham.” These are more than names on a genealogical list. They prepare the reader for the theme of fulfillment that dominates this gospel account. He is the Davidic Messiah and the promised heir of the Patriarch, and in him, the covenant promises find their fulfillment - [Photo by Guillaume de Germain on Unsplash].

The book of Genesis traces Abraham’s lineage back to the first man, Adam, a line that includes many righteous men such as Enoch and Noah. Yet, in Matthew’s gospel, Abraham is the starting point of the genealogical record:
  • (Matthew 1:17) – “So all the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations, and from David to the carrying away to Babylon fourteen generations, and from the carrying away to Babylon to the Christ fourteen generations.”

Not only is Abraham pivotal to the history of Israel, but the covenant with its redemptive promises began with him. And the arrival of the promised Messiah, the “seed of Abraham,” is its climax.

God covenanted with Abraham and promised to bless his “seed.” Nations and kings would come from him, and in him, “all the tribes of the earth” are blessed. Hence, from its inception, the covenant envisioned the inclusion of the “nations of the earth” - (Genesis 12:1-3, 17:4-8).


In the gospel of Luke, the angel Gabriel announces to Mary that God is about to fulfill His covenant promises to Israel, especially those given to Abraham:
  • (Luke 1:31-33) – “You will conceive in your womb and bring forth a son, and call his name JESUS. He shall be great, and be called the Son of the Most-High: and the Lord God will give unto him the throne of his father David. And he will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom, there shall be no end.

Jesus is also the “son of David,” the promised king who reigns forevermore on “Zion,” not only over Israel but also over all the nations and “kings of the earth”:
  • (Psalm 2:7-9) – “I will tell of the decree: Yahweh said to me, you are my son; this day have I begotten you. Ask of me and LET ME GIVE NATIONS AS YOUR INHERITANCE, and as your possession, the ends of the earth: You will shepherd them with a scepter of iron, as a potter’s vessel, you will dash them in pieces.

In her song celebrating what God has done, Mary invokes the covenant with Abraham and links it to the miraculous child in her womb:
  • (Luke 1:47-55) – “My soul magnifies the Lord, and my spirit has rejoiced in God my Savior. For he has looked upon the low estate of his handmaid: For behold, from henceforth all generations shall call me blessed. For he that is mighty has done to me great things, and holy is his name. And his mercy is unto generations and generations, on them that fear him… He has given help to Israel his servant, THAT HE MIGHT REMEMBER MERCY, AS HE SPOKE TO OUR FATHERS, TOWARD ABRAHAM AND HIS SEED FOREVER.”

Thus, Jesus is the fulfillment of the promise “to Abraham and his seed.” Mary’s reference to his “mercy to generations and generations” echoes God’s covenant with “you and your seed after you THROUGHOUT THEIR GENERATIONS.”

Yahweh has sent his Son as promised, and he will rule over all the nations of the earth. As Zacharias, the father of John the Baptist confirmed:
  • (Luke 1:68-73) – “Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel; For he has visited and wrought redemption for his people and raised up a horn of salvation for us In the house of his servant David, as he spoke by the mouth of his holy prophets that have been from of old… To show mercy towards our fathers and REMEMBER HIS HOLY COVENANT, THE OATH WHICH HE SWORE TO ABRAHAM OUR FATHER.


But physical descent alone does not qualify anyone for membership in the Covenant. Ishmael, for example, was Abraham’s biological son, but he did not inherit the promise. Likewise, Jacob was accepted by God, but Esau was rejected. Being the “son of Abraham” entails much more than any biological relationship.

Famously, John the Baptist warned the Jewish leaders in his audience not to appeal to their descent from Abraham to validate their covenant status:
  • (Matthew 3:9) – “And they were being baptized in the Jordan River by him, openly confessing their sins. But seeing many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming to his baptism, he said to them, Broods of vipers! Who suggested for you to flee from the coming wrath? Bring forth fruit worthy of repentance. AND THINK NOT TO SAY WITHIN YOURSELVES, WE HAVE ABRAHAM AS OUR FATHER. I say to you, God is able out of these stones to raise up children to Abraham.

Repentance and submission to the Messiah are mandatory for entrance into the Kingdom, not physical descent from Abraham, and in John’s saying, “stones” is metaphorical for the Gentiles who are brought into the covenant.


Compare the following words of Jesus with those of Yahweh to Abraham:
  • (Matthew 8:8-12) – “But the (Roman) centurion said, Lord! I am of no consideration that under my roof you should enter, but only say with a word and healed will be my servant… Now Jesus, hearing, marveled and said to them that were following him: Truly, I say to you, with no one in Israel such faith as this have I found. But I say to you, MANY FROM EAST AND WEST WILL COME AND RECLINE WITH ABRAHAM AND ISAAC AND JACOB IN THE KINGDOM OF THE HEAVENS, but the sons of the kingdom will be cast into the darkness outside.
  • (Genesis 13:14-16) – “And Yahweh said to Abram: Lift up your eyes and look from the place where you are; NORTHWARD AND SOUTHWARD AND EASTWARD AND WESTWARD; for all the land which you are beholding, I will give to you, and to your seed to times everlasting. And I will make your seed as the dust of the earth, so that if a man can number the dust of the earth, your seed also may be numbered.

The clause “EAST AND WEST” echoes the command for Abraham to look “north and south, east and west” to see the extent of the promised land. In both Hebrew and Greek, the term rendered “land” can also refer to the planet “earth.”

Sunrise Panorama - Photo by George Kourounis on Unsplash
[Photo by George Kourounis on Unsplash]

Thus, the covenant always anticipated something larger than the small territory of Canaan and the biological descendants of Abraham - (Genesis 12:3, 13:14).


Like its beginning, the conclusion of the gospel of Matthew recalls the covenant with Abraham and the messianic promises to the House of David:
  • And Jesus came and spoke to them, saying, All authority has been given to me in heaven and on earth. Go, therefore, and make disciples of all the nations” - (Matthew 28:18-19).

Christ’s “Great Commission” echoes the promise from the second Psalm to give the “nations as your inheritance, and as your possession, the ends of the earth” to the Messiah.

Likewise, the promise to “bless all the nations” in Abraham reverberates in the words of Jesus. He is the Greater “son of David,” and the True “seed of Abraham,” and therefore, he now has “all authority,” not only on the earth but also “in the heavens.”

Accordingly, he is sending his envoys throughout the earth to announce his rule and the reality of the Kingdom of God. The era of fulfillment has arrived in him! And this glorious message is heralded to the nations whenever the gospel of Jesus Christ is proclaimed.



Language of the New Testament

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